Fasihudin PSP
Thursday, 06-January-2011


Education and training are the only two words which are widely used and even more than any other words in almost all of the literature and writings of an academic and professional discipline. Both have somewhat similar dictionary meaning, and at times are used with overlapping description. The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary describes education as ‘a process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools or colleges, to improve knowledge and develop skills’ and the meaning of ‘training’ is given as ‘the process of learning the skills that you  need to do a job’.
Despite glaring interconnectedness and inclusiveness of the two words, the police education and training are generally slightly differentiated. The old literature on police and policing might have used it as synonyms, but we appreciate the efforts of our recent writers who are trying to give us some concrete and independent explanation and identifying the kinds of the two basic words and concepts. Training and education differ in terms of scope and objectives; also the purpose of education is broader and more general as compared to that of training. Education is concerned with the development of the mind (of the intellect) while training deals with learning specific skills. Education is a more personal activity; training means developing skills that will be used more for social and economic reasons than for personal purposes. Education should come first, and then training should follow. Michael L.Birzer and Cliff Roberson quote two police scholars Stan Shernock and Gail Dantzker on more comprehensive views to differentiate training from education.
“When educated people are faced with a novel situation, they should be able to analyze, interpret, and make judgments about the situation themselves rather than relying on others to tell them what to do……A person who has been merely trained, on the other hand, is more likely to rely on others to tell him or her what to do in a particular situation and is less likely to understand the reasons for doing what he or she is directed to.” (Quoted in Birzer and Roberson, 2007).
M.R. Haberfeld of Jhon Jay College has excellently described the two terms in the chapter ‘Training and Education, Conceptual Framework’ in her book, Critical Issues in Police Training, with advantages and disadvantages of the two. However, both training and education play important role in the field of law enforcement. Training provides officers with unambiguous instructions on how to perform many of the tasks that they are expected to complete. As an outcome, trained officers often respond both more consistently, using proven techniques, and more automatically, even under emergency conditions. Education, in contrast, helps prepare officers to solve problems independently as well as to communicate and interact effectively with others (Haberfeld, 2002).   
The police is a highly structured and complex organization with a variety of compulsory and optional duties and responsibilities. The various strata in the police organizational hierarchy demand a separate system of human resource management. Initial and simple ground work will need ordinary skills and a lower or medium educational level, whereas higher and complex situation will demand more comprehensive education and a specialized training. The horizontal and vertical diversification and proliferation of police department and policing responsibilities dictate a continuous, on-job or in-service education and training. The 21st century complex society and complicated nature of crimes have made the job of the police highly difficult and challenging. Birzer and Tannehil (2001) have been quoted as.
“There is an obvious need for police officers to acquire knowledge of the latest legal decisions, technological advances, and tactical developments in the field, and to remain proficient in a number of job-related skills. There is also an urgent need for police officers who are skilled communicators and decision makers, who are capable of helping citizens, identify and solve problems in their communities, and who posses effective mediation and conflict resolution skills,” (Quoted in Wrobleski and Hess, 2006). 
It is one of the reasons that many countries, like Canada and Britain and others have made a combination of both for nearly all positions. Need for further education and training is identified at various levels of police administration and service. Different and specialized courses and programs are initiated, introduced, implemented and evaluated. The public demands and satisfaction, and government commitment and policies are the external factors for enhanced education and training, in addition to the internal pressure of professional excellence, service delivery, increased monetary benefits, promotion, selection for an envious job or higher/foreign scholarship or assignment, gallantry awards, and many more departmental achievements. However, the basic conceptual framework of all such education-cum-training initiatives revolves around certain key elements:
i)      Continuous motivation of the trainee, trainer, and the department;
ii)     Constant updating of knowledge, skills and attitude (KSA) [with a T from training, accomplishes the TASK in a reverse form];
iii)    Identifying performance level vis-à-vis expectations or standards;
iv)   Scanning the environment and situation-analysis for structural and functional changes;
v)    Well-thought Training Needs Analysis (TNA) and concomitantly, well-prepared raining programs;
vi)   Conducting and evaluating training, with constant feedback loop to assess effectiveness in terms of meeting the needs; and
vii)  Reviewing, overhauling and bridging the gap between practice and theory.
The success of various teachings and training methods—like individual study, case exercises, tutorial discussions, experiential learning, field study tour, individual and group presentations, writing and presenting research paper on a specific theoretical concept or practical issue, simulation exercises, role-playing, penal discussions, demonstration, book review, conducting interview or a job rotation for a short period for a tour of duty, etc—depends on many factors like the complexity of the subject, size of class room, requisite human and financial resources, logistics, instructors’ knowledge, technical proficiency, personality, interpersonal skills and the trainees’ capacity and motivation to learn and acquire. No single program is a cent per cent success, and at times falls short of expectations due to many intrinsic and extraneous debilitating factors e.g.; deficiencies in the program content (overemphasizing one element and ignoring the other), low quality of trainers, insufficient training facilities and equipments, unrealistic and inappropriate expectations and unequal blending of theoretical knowledge and practical field training and a lack of proper evaluation and feedback system. To overcome all such difficulties and irritants, an action plan is needed, which means an agreed upon, specific, and achievable plan of how personal and professional development can be addressed within a given time limit. An action plan should be SMART (British Police Training Centre, 1999) which is Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed.(Haberfeld, 2002). After this brief academic overview, we now turn to the various police education and training programs and courses in Pakistan.
First of all, we should know that Pakistan is a federation and the law and order responsibility rests with the four provinces. Secondly, the recruitment and selection to the police department are made at various levels. The different levels of entries have been a moot point and are often criticized. Thirdly, though maintaining the law and order is a provincial issue, yet some high profile crimes are dealt by federal or military-cum-civil agencies, e.g.; National Accountability Bureau (NAB), Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) and Anti-Narcotic Force (ANF), etc. The police officers are generally posted to these agencies. The civil armed forces like the Frontier Constabulary and the Intelligence Bureau (IB) of Pakistan are most of the time commanded by the officers from the Police Service of Pakistan (PSP).
The organization of the police department (Annex A) describes these various levels of entries. At the lower level, a constable is recruited by the District Police Officer (DPO) or by a selection/recruitment committee, nominated by the Provincial Police Officer (PPO, formerly called the Inspector General of Police-IGP). The constable is promoted to head constable after passing some mandatory capacity-building and efficiency-developing short courses, and seniority-cum-fitness. Some of the Assistant Sub-Inspector (ASI) is promoted from head constable, after a head constable undergoes some further mandatory training and a certain period of service, with an unspotted service record, and some are directly selected/recruited (Probationer ASI), by the Provincial Public Service Commission (PPSC). ASI is promoted to Sub-inspector (SI) and Inspector (IP) after another mandatory course at Police Training College (PTC) again on seniority-cum-fitness formula. The constable and head constable are known as Lower-subordinates whereas the ASI, SI, and IP are grouped together as Upper-subordinates. The minimum educational requirement for a constable is matriculation (Class 10th or ten years of school education), which is mostly general in nature and content, and no specific subjects are required for this qualification. The inspector (IP) may be promoted to the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). A DSP may be selected by the PPSC after a thorough and competitive examination in various compulsory and optional subjects, subject to psychological tests, medical fitness and an interview before the commission. Unfortunately, the IP before his promotion to the rank of DSP does not need undergo any training or further educational qualification. The minimum educational requirement for a directly selected DSP is Bachelor of Arts/Science (B.A/BSc). A probationer DSP undergoes a mandatory training in the PTC of the respective provinces. Similarly, the most esteemed group of PSP comes from nation-wide, Central Superior Service (CSS) competitive examination, held every year by the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) of Pakistan. The first entry is an Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) who, after qualifying the theory examination in CSS (with 500 score compulsory subjects and 600 score of optional papers) passes through a series of psychological tests, medical checkup and an interview (viva voce) examination before the FPSC. Again the minimum educational requirement is B.A/BSc, but in reality a new entrant is tested for his/her academic abilities and writing style in a dozen of subjects, which are otherwise not very easy to attempt. It needs a lot of struggle, commitment, intellectual caliber and preparation before sitting in the CSS examination hall every year. An aspirant candidate is given only three chances/attempts. It depends on the availability of seats, and on average 10-20 ASP is selected by the FPSC through out the country every year. This is not a strictly merit-oriented criterion, because the final selection is made on the basis of availability of seats for every province, which is called a quota system, a provision for the underdeveloped parts of the country. The probationer ASP will now undergo a one year mandatory training in general subjects at the Civil Services Academy (CSA) at Lahore. This is called Common Training Program (CTP) which is more of socialization, interpersonal interaction and refinement of the probationary officers than a strict, stratified training. Certain important subjects are taught and evaluated in addition to the overall social activities, field trips, study tours, research papers and report writings. After CTP, the various groups disperse for their future professional academies and so the ASP (under training) are given a welcome at the National Police Academy (NPA) at Islamabad, where different police-related subjects are taught, besides their physical exercises, horse-riding, social get-together with senior officers, country-study tours to all major cities of the country—a relatively tough training after the ‘honeymoon period’ at CSA. This is called Specialized Training Program (STP) and which lasts for another period of one year. A nine month field practical training is followed, which is based on the philosophy of job rotation for a short period of time where an ASP (or a DSP in case of provincial selection) performs certain jobs at police station level, or at headquarters, and thus starts a true learning of the police  work, police culture and police administration. The ASP are supposed to pass an internal examination by the NPA and again a theoretical examination by the FPSC, called the Final Passing Out-Examination (FPOE). The details of some of these police basic and special examinations/courses with names of subjects, total score, passing score and duration of the course are attached separately, in order to avoid too many tables in the flow of the paper.  These are:
Annex B— Basic Recruit Training Program for Constable at Police Training Colleges—total period one year (Table: IV) and Training Program for Head Constable (Lower Examination)—total period six months (Table: V)
Annex C—Training Program for Intermediate Course (Table: I) and Upper Course (Table: VII) for Upper subordinates
Annex D—Training Program for Probationer ASI (Selected by PPSC) (Table: VIII and Table: IX)
Annex E—Training Program for Drill Instructor Course (Table: X) and Basic Training Program for ASP in the National Police Academy, Islamabad (Table: XI)
All these details and information are provided by him Police Training College (PTC), Hangu of the Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and the National Police Academy, Islamabad. There will be a slight variation amongst the colleges, but the basic subjects and procedures remain the same. The subjects which are taught to the ASP in the NPA are Criminal Law and Procedure, Police Rule, and a few modern policing concepts in the various newly designed module system, mostly reformed by foreign experts from UK under their Central Police Training Unit (CPTU) project in late 90s. Unfortunately, many important subjects like Criminology, International Crimes and Police Administration have been deleted in the new syllabus. This is a very sad happening. For a comparative study, a proposed curriculum/program for basic academy/recruit training is reproduced from California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (Annex-F). One can easily see the concept and style of police training in the developed world and the manner in which we are stuck with the much outdated and repetitive training system.
(a) As we have seen in the above section that the basic educational requirements for all levels are unrealistic and not commensurate with the modern day demands of new policing in a new era. There is a trend of generalized knowledge and greater emphasis on bookish or legal subjects throughout the training schedule. Many topics are repeatedly taught in the overall training programs, right from constable to DSP. The best hope for long-term improvement in police lies in the development of superior personnel to carry out future planning and direction in the field. The best way to achieve this objective is through college education (Wilson and Mc Laren, 1977). In the USA, the need for highly educated police personnel was recognized as early as 1931 in the Wickersham Commission report, which recommended a bachelors’ degree as the entry level education qualification for police officers. In 1967, the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice reaffirmed the need for four-year degrees for police officers (Ortmeir, 2006). Contrary to these efforts at international level, and given the low standards of school and college education in Pakistan, the required educational qualification for all levels is too low. Moreover, it should be more specific and a generalized degree in linguistics and literature should not be taken serious as a requisite qualification.  
(b) There is an increased and boring repetition of law subjects at all levels, mostly taught by an old law instructor who is often too skeptical and critical of the field officers who, in his opinion, do not care for legal knowledge in discharge of their duties. The young field officers have their own grievances against these law instructors who, in their opinion, befog their minds with unnecessary nitty-gritty of dry and elusive legal provisions.
(c) The major police law, the Police Act 1861 was upheld after Pakistan’s independence in 1947 and was repealed by the Police Order 2002, which put an end to the old colonial law, and provided a division of the existing police into a separate functional and structural units, like the Watch and Ward (Operation) and Investigation. Prosecution was detached from it through a separate law. Though the police reforms were very enthusiastically welcomed at the time of its introduction, but due to excessive changes and fundamental amendments, and a lack of political will and a lack of absorption capacity of the department, the new police law has lost its luster and appreciation. It is on the reverse everywhere in the country and some Provincial Police Officers (PPO), though unwarrantedly, have issued orders which have literally brought the old structure again from a departmental backdoor. Unfortunately, the police reforms were made at a legal, administrative and structural level, and not at functional level of capacity-building or human resource management. Police education and training did not precede the on-ground specialization and separation of powers and responsibilities. The police education, recruitment, selection and training remained on the same old pattern, despite the introduction of a highly modernized, rehabilitative, service-oriented, non-authoritative, accountable, and community-centered police service! The transition from force to service awfully missed the concomitant support from training schools and colleges, which should have been revamped, much earlier, for a completely different commitment and delivery. This is a lesson for all other nations and departments across the world. 
(d) The design of the given curriculum is not satisfactory, and it terribly fails to address the new challenges and threats of the modern crime market in the world. Investigation is generally given little attention as compared to prevention and control. The modern paradigm shift in favor of scientific investigation, forensic psychology, criminalities, comp stat, profiling, etc, are not on priority. One reason may be resources and technical know-how but the other is commitment and awareness. The latest information technology (IT) revolution has put enormous pressure on police in terms of skills and personnel for making certain changes in their curricula in at least three programs: In terms of technology skills, courses can be offered on crime mapping techniques, database management, and use of the Internet by police. Technology-based courses in analytic development might include courses on the application of a wide range of data analysis techniques and programs for problem solving by police. Finally, technology-based courses in the area of knowledge development would introduce police to the latest developments in IT with current and/or potential applications to current policing problems (Byrne and Buzawa. 2005). All theses modern concepts and techniques are conspicuously non-existent in Pakistan’s police colleges, even in the National Police Academy’s training program. Even the on-job/in-service capacity-building training for a short period or a few days doesn’t serve the purpose of a highly qualified and professionally competent police service.
(e) Modern concepts, styles and strategies of policing, and latest literature on criminology, criminological research, theories, studies and reports are not included in the respective curricula or available at the college/academy’s libraries. Not a single international or peer-reviewed journal on policing, criminology or criminal justice is received in any of our Police College or NPA. This is how a knowledge gap is widening between us and the rest of the world.
A random survey on the topic under discussion was conducted by the writer, where sixty police officers of different ranks replied to a semi-structured questionnaire. They included head constable, ASI, SI, PI, and DSP, both from field, desk job, drill instructors and academy trainers. The mixed sample generated a wonderful mixed response.
An uncountable combination of responses and replies provided me the opportunity to count the variety of replies for easy understanding. The biggest challenge to the current police was identified as terrorism (22.22%) and the biggest constraint in our police training was named as Inadequate training facilities (14.44%). A huge number (9.44 %)   advocated training of modern weapons as the new thing they will introduce to the existing police recruit training system. Despite enumeration of a lengthy list of challenges and constraints as evident from Table I, II, and III, 18% are fully satisfied and 62% are satisfied to some extent with their training in the police school they got as trainee, however 18% give importance to Police Practical Work (PPW) as top priority than the 23% of respondents who attach higher importance to legal studies by a fresh trainee. These are the trends showing statistics and a more vigorous and through analysis of our training system are to be carried out as to assess and evaluate our needs and demands in the wake of modern day requirements in the current security environment. Figures I, II, and III are self-explanatory.
Identified Challenges No. of Replies %age
Terrorism 40 22.22%
Religious Militancy 05 2.77%
Suicidal Attacks 10 5.55%
Law and Order 06 3.33%
Resources Deficits 31 17.22%
Training and Equipments 02 1.11%
Strength Deficit 12 6.66%
Political Interference 12 6.66%
24 hours Duty /No shift system 02 1.11%
Improper Investigation 06 3.33%
Lack of Heavy Weapons and Vehicles 04 2.22%
Domestic financial problems of the force 15 8.33%
Crimes against property and Kidnapping for ransom 12 6.66%
Weak Surveillance and outdated communication system 04 2.22%
Lack of Discipline in the force 04 2.22%
Excessive workload 03 1.66%
Corruption in Department 02 1.11%
Lost police public image 01 0.5%
Inadequate Training 02 1.11%
Total 180 100% 
Identified Problems No. of Replies %age
Inadequate Training facilities/training aides. 26 14.44%
Training becomes difficult due to recruits low educational criteria for selection and recruitment 10 5.55%
Poor attention on Police Practical Work (PPW) 08 4.44%
Time period for various courses too short 03 1.66%
Little emphasis on physical training 03 1.66%
Selection /recruitment not on merit 03 1.66%
Inadequate weapons/ heavy weapons training 04 2.22%
Corruption /malpractices in instructors /drill staff 06 3.33%
Low standard of trainers 08 4.44%
Low educational qualification of drill staff/trainers 05 2.77%
Recruitment without Psychological tests 03 1.66%
No training with demonstration in the field 05 2.77%
No visit to the scene of crime/study trips 06 3.33%
Lack of Islamic and moral education in the 04 2.22%
Improper accommodation problem 05 2.77%
Trainers’ overbearing, unfriendly attitude towards new young recruits 07 3.88%
Excessive foul language used by the trainers in the class and during physical events 09 5.00%
Lack of interest and responsibility by the trainers and the trainee 09 5.00%
100 years old training methods and syllabi 06 3.33%
Excessive emphasis on physical training 12 6.66%
Food provision to recruits is below standard 08 4.44%
Little relaxation time 05 2.77%
No tea or refreshments during continuous long training period 05 2.77%
Some inhuman behavior in training Centers   
Unbecoming physical punishment 04 2.22%
No attention on personality and confidence building 05 2.77%
Undue favor in examinations by drill /instructors staff to some blue eyed trainee or for petty gifts 11 6.11%
Fatigue work is often trainers personal job and a sign of slavery 03 1.66%
Total 180 100%
Factors of Changes No. of Replies %age
Psychological tests/psychological analysis of trainees 07 3.88%
Specialized training for various situation 07 3.88%
Public –friendly policing methods 10 5.55%
Creation of congenial and friendly atmosphere in training centers 09 5.00%
Computer education and skills 10 5.55%
Religious education on morality 05 3.33%
Inculcation of patriotism and national spirit 03 1.66%
Modern weapons training 17 9.44%
Counter-terrorism strategies and techniques 13 7.22%
Improving accommodation facilities 04 2.22%
Financial rewards for outstanding recruits 09 5.00%
Replacement of excessive physical exercises by games like football, crickets etc 03 1.66%
Extra financial support for food/refreshment during course 07 3.88%
Giving proper leisure time and leave 03 1.66%
Raising trainers’ educational level 09 5.00%
New training methods and techniques e.g.; audiovisual 03 1.66%
Abolishing or minimizing physical punishments for recruits 04 2.22%
Classes on stress management and fitness 03 1.66%
Appointment of law graduates as law instructors 06 3.33%
Communication skills on how to talk to the public 05 2.77%
Training on tear gas and explosives 03 1.66%
Training on drugs control 03 1.66%
Discipline and proper wearing of uniform 03 1.66%
Reducing theoretical subjects 06 3.33%
Transfer and reshuffle of too old staff and new appointments 10 5.55%
Practical police work in the field 11 6.11%
Islamic teachings on fear of God as an internal restraint 04 2.22%
Proper legal curriculum and changes in the existing syllabus 03 1.66%
Total 180 100%
(a) One of the main purposes for higher education is the development of transferable skills and the transition from education to work. Therefore, the level and requirement for higher education for induction into the police should be enhanced. By the year 2001, educational standards across US police departments were nearly double the standards of 1990 (White, 2007). This approach of setting higher standard of college education should be taken into serious consideration by the policy-makers in our country.
(b) The police officer who will be desired in the future will be one who has been educated in liberal arts and sciences and one who can think and make decision on his or her own and solve problems with the community’s as a priority. The new police officer will also be more interested in providing community service than in simply being a crime fighter (Birzer and Roberson 2007). This suggestion demands incorporation into police curricula a variety of subjects and skills, including criminal justice and juvenile justice processes, criminology and the causes of crimes, law enforcement, law adjudication, corrections, police organization, police culture, styles of policing, social work, human rights, ethics, conflict resolution, restorative justice, minority and women studies, stress management, social problems, racial/ethnic group contacts, urbanization and multiculturalism, to name a few important topics. None of these is given due importance in our police colleges and academy. We need an urgent overhauling of our basic police training and education at all levels, right from a constable/recruit basic training to the training of ASP/DSP.
(c) On-job/in-service training should be reshaped as a specialized assignment for the middle manager and upper-subordinates. This should be in the areas of money-laundering, human-trafficking, drugs and Norco-businesses, terrorism and counterterrorism strategies, child abuse and violence against women and minorities hate crimes, white-collar or organized crimes, etc. Separate training at a higher level, and particularly the investigation of all such crimes shall be made an independent subject and be given weight -age for promotion and posting to specific assignment. Currently, there is no such system of career-building or searching for the right man for the right job in Pakistan police department.
(d) The overall training programs shall emphasize less on rigorous physical exercises, which is the old traditional way of school master beating. Rather, the intellectual capabilities of the officer are sharpened through modern techniques of learning and teaching in a good learning environment for which the respective colleges/academy shall be given additional resources and support. The training schedule should be adjusted to the demands of the time and the challenges being faced by the Pakistani police e.g; fighting street robberies, street violence, mob control, bomb blasts, suicide bombing, target killing and problems of community’s concern like drugs addiction in the local areas. Skills, rather than extensive legal studies, shall be given priority to deal with such problems. Self-study, report-writing, researching, presentation and communication skills shall be given due importance in our training programs. Research methodology must get a place in the training program of the senior officers like ASP and DSP.
S.NO. Theory/Written Subjects Total Score/Marks Passing Marks %age Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing marks %age
1 Pakistan Penal Code (PCC) 100 50% Squad Drill 70 50%
2 Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) 100 50% Rifle Musketry 80 50%
3 Islamiyat (Islamic Studies)/Human Rights  100 50% Extend Order Drill 35 50%
4 Police Practical Work/General Police Duty  100 50% Mob Dispersal 30 50%
5 Local & Special Laws/ Qanoon-e-Shahdaat (Evidence Act) 100 50% Bayonet Fighting  10 50%
6 Police Rules, 1934 100 50% Traffic Control 20 50%
7 Security/General knowledge/Finger Prints/Wireless Telegraphy/Attitudinal Change  100 50% Physical Training 20 50%
8    Unarmed Combat 20 50%
9    Assault Course 150 50%
Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, KPK (Pakistan)
S.NO. Theory/Written Subjects Total Score/Marks Passing Marks %age Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing marks %age
1 Pakistan Penal Code 100 50% Physical Training 20 50%
2 Criminal Procedure Code 100 50% Squad Drill 40 50%
3 Islamiyat (Islamic Studies) 100 50% Rifle Exercice 20 50%
4 Police Practical Work (PPW) 100 50% Guard Duty 20 50%
5 Local & Special Laws 100 50% Unarmed Combat 10 50%
6 Police Rules, 1934 100 50% Traffic Control 30 50%
7 Medical Jurisprudence/Finger Prints 100 50% Assault Course 150 50%
8 Qanoon-e-Shahdaat (Evidence Act)/General Knowledge/Attitudinal Change 100 50% Extend Order Drill 30 50%
9    Riot Drill  15 50%
10    Rifle Musketry 80 50%
Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, KPK (Pakistan)
Annex- C
S.NO. Theory/Written Subjects Total Score/Marks Passing Marks %age Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing marks %age
1 Pakistan Penal Code 100 50% Squad Drill 30 50%
2 Criminal Procedure Code 100 50% Guard Duty 20 50%
3 Police Rules, 1934 200 50% Physical Training 20 50%
4 Local & Special Laws 100 50% Mob Dispersal 20 50%
5 Police Practical Work (Theory) 100 50% Extend Order Drill 40 50%
6 Police Practical Work (Practical) 100 50% Rifle Fire 80 50%
7 Scientific Aid 100 50% Lathi Fighting 10 50%
8 Plan Drawing 50 50% Traffic Control 30 50%
9 Finger Prints 100 50% Unarmed Combat 10 50%
10 Medical Jurisprudence 100 50%   
11 Qanoon-e-Shahdaat (Evidence Act)/General Knowledge 100 50%   
12 Islamiyat (Islamic Studies) 100 50%   
Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, KPK (Pakistan)
S.NO. Theory/Written Subjects Total Score/Marks Passing Marks %age Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing marks %age
1 Pakistan Penal Code 100 50% Squad Drill 50 50%
2 Criminal Procedure Code 100 50% Physical Exercises 20 50%
3 Police Rules, 1934 100 50% Mob Dispersal 40 50%
4 Local & Special Laws 100 50% Unarmed Combat 10 50%
5 Police Practical Work (Theory) 100 50% Raid on Proclaimed Offenders 20 50%
6 Police Practical Work (Practical) 150 50%   
7 Scientific Aid 100 50%   
8 Plan Drawing 50 50%   
9 Medical Jurisprudence 100 50%   
10 Qanoon-e.Shahdaat (Evidence Act)/General Knowledge 100 50%   
11 Islamiyat (Islamic Studies) 100 50%   

Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, KPK (Pakistan)
S.NO. Theory/Written Subjects Total Score/Marks Passing Marks %age Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing marks %age
1 Pakistan Penal Code 100 50% Physical Training 20 50%
2 Criminal Procedure Code 100 50% Squad Drill 40 50%
3 Islamiyat (Islamic Studies)  100 50% Rifle Exercice 20 50%
4 Police Practical Work  100 50% Guard Duty 20 50%
5 Local & Special Laws 100 50% Unnamed Combat 10 50%
6 Police Rules, 1934  100 50% Traffic Control 30 50%
7 Medical Jurist Prudence/Finger Prints 100 50% Assault Course 150 50%
8 Qanoon-e-Shahdaat (Evidence Act)/General Knowledge/Attitudinal Change 100 50% Extend Order Drill 30 50%
    Riot Drill  15 50%
    Rifle Musketry 80 50%
Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, KPK(Pakistan)
S.NO. Theory/Written Subjects Total Score/Marks Passing Marks %age Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing marks %age
1 Pakistan Penal Code 100 50% Squad Drill 30 50%
2 Criminal Procedure Code 100 50% Guard Duty 20 50%
3 Police Rules, 1934 200 50% Physical Training 20 50%
4 Local & Special Laws 100 50% Mob Dispersal 20 50%
5 Police Practical Work (Theory) 100 50% Extend Order Drill 40 50%
6 Police Practical Work (Practical) 100 50% Rifle Fire 80 50%
7 Scientific Aid 100 50% Lathi Fighting 10 50%
8 Plan Drawing 50 50% Traffic Control 30 50%
9 Finger Prints 100 50% Unarmed Combat 10 50%
10 Medical Jurisprudence 100 50%   
11 Qanoon-e-Shahdaat(Evidence Act)/General Knowledge 100 50%   
12 Islamiyat (Islamic Studies) 100 50%   
Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, NWFP(Pakistan)
S.NO. Drill/Ground Work Subjects Total Score/Points Passing Marks %age
1 Guard Duty 30 50%
2 Traffic Control 30 50%
3 Bayonet Fighting  30 50%
4 Range Firing  80 50%
5 SMG Firing 151 50%
6 Gymnastics  50 50%
7 Revolver Instructions  24 50%
8 Grenade Instructions  25 50%
9 2 inch Mortar  30 50%
10 SMG Instructions 30 50%
11 Rifle Arms Instruction  25 50%
12 Section Formation  25 50%
13 Rifle Firing  25 50%
14 Rifle Aiming  25 50%
15 General Conduct  20 50%
16 Fielf Craft  25 50%
17 Tear Gas Firing   15 50%
18 Tear Gas Aiming 15 50%
19 Tear Gas Course  20 50%
20 Assault Course  150 50%
21 Squad Drill 40 50%
22 Physical Training 20 50%
23 Unarmed Combat 70 50%
24 Care of Arms 20 50%
25 Rifle Exercise  20 50%
26 Mob Dispersal 50 50%
Source: Office of the Commandant, Police Training College (PTC), Hangu, NWFP(Pakistan)
Name of Theory Written Subjects Total Score Passing Score      
  % age Academy Internal Activities Total Score Passing Score       
 % age
Police Rules With Books  100 45% Physical Training (PT) 4 events 100 50 %
Police Rules Without Books 100 45% Obstacle 12 events 100 50 %
Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) With Books 100 45% Drill 5 events 100 50 %
Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) Without Books 100 45% Firing with 4 different weapons 100 50 %
Local and Special Laws With Books 100 45% Commandants Assessment 50 -
Local and Special Laws Without Books 100 45%   
Pakistan Penal Code With Books 100 45%   
Pakistan Penal Code Without Books 100 45%   
Qanoon-e-Sarhad (Evidence Act) With Books 100 45%   
Qanoon-e-Sarhad (Evidence Act) Without Books 100 45%   
Forensic Sciences Medical Jurisprudence 100 45%   
The curriculum for basic police academy training includes a wide range of subjects. Although basic academy programs vary slightly, a typical curriculum may be similar to the following:
•Leadership, Professionalism, and Ethics  ……..  (08 hours)
•Criminal Justice System     ……..  (04 hours)
•Policing in the Community    ……..  (12 hours)
•Victim -logy/Crisis Intervention    ……..  (06 hours)
•Introduction to Criminal Law    ……..  (06 hours)
•Property Crimes     ……..  (10 hours)
•Crimes Against Persons     ……..  (10 hours)
•General Criminal Statutes    ……..  (04 hours)
•Crimes Against Children    ……..  (06 hours)
•Sex Crimes     ……..  (06 hours)
•Juvenile Law and Procedures    ……..  (06 hours)
•Controlled Substances    ……..  (12 hours)
•Liquor Law Violations    ……..  (04 hours)
•Laws of Arrest      ……..  (12 hours)
•Search and Seizure     ……..  (12 hours)
•Presentation of Evidence    ……..  (08 hours)
•Investigative Report Writing    ……..  (40 hours)
•Vehicle Operations     ……..  (24 hours)
•Use of Force      ……..  (12 hours)
•Patrol Techniques    ……..  (12 hours)
•Vehicle Pullovers     ……..  (14 hours)
•Crimes in Progress     ……..  (16 hours)
•Handling Disputes/Crowd Control   ……..  (12 hours)
•Domestic Violence     ……..  (08 hours)
•Unusual Occurrences     ……..  (04 hours)
•Missing Persons     ……..  (04 hours)
•Traffic Enforcement    ……..  (22 hours)
•Traffic Accident Investigation    ……..  (12 hours)
•Preliminary Investigation    ……..  (42 hours)
•Custody     ……..  (04 hours)
•Lifetime Fitness     ……..  (40 hours)
•Arrest and Control/Baton    ……..  (60 hours)
•First Aid and CPR    ……..  (21 hours)
•Firearms/Chemical Agents    ……..  (72 hours)
•Information Systems    ……..  (04 hours)
•Persons with Disabilities   ……..  (06 hours)
•Gang Awareness    ……..  (08 hours)
•Crimes Against the Justice System   ……..  (04 hours)
•Weapons Violations     ……..  (04 hours)
•Hazardous Materials Awareness   ……..  (04 hours)
•Cultural Diversity/Discrimination    ……..  (24 hours)
•Scenario Tests      ……..  (40 hours)
•Knowledge Tests    ……..  (25 hours)
Source: Ortmeier P.J. (2006): Introduction to Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, 2nd Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA 





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